PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES
Kapoor, H. (2018). Sex differences and similarities in negative creativity. Personality and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.04.043
Negative creativity is using the creative process to meet a negative goal, without the deliberate intent to harm. This report investigates whether sex differences exist in the expression of negative creativity. Secondary data across four experiments (N = 641, 293 women) using divergent thinking tasks were compared for differences in positive and negative creativity, between and within men and women. Results showed that all but one result was in line with a gender similarities perspective to negative creativity, with men and women being equally negatively creative. However, greater variability was noted for men in positive creativity on object-based tasks, and for women in negative creativity. Further, whereas men were more likely to be positively than negatively creativity, women's creative performance was equivalent across valences in real-world divergent thinking tasks. This may be accounted for by differing cognitive styles adopted during creative task performance as well as creativity task effects.
Karandikar, S., Kapoor, H., Fernandes, S., & Jonason, P. K. (2018). Predicting moral decision-making with dark personalities and moral values. Personality and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.048
We examined (N = 355; 250 women) how the Dark Tetrad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism) are associated with moral dilemmas and Moral Foundations. The Dark Triad traits were associated with utilitarian decision-making on moral dilemmas. Sadism did not provide incremental variance above the Dark Triad traits in accounting for responses to moral dilemmas. Compromised morality explained higher dilemma scores, beyond the Dark Tetrad traits. Therefore, we suggest that compromised moral values within dark personalities result in higher utilitarian decision-making. Men had darker personalities and were more utilitarian than women were, while women were more moral than men. Subsequently, men made more utilitarian decisions as compared to women, which may be a result of their darker personalities and lower concerns for moral values. Collectively, our results add to the discussion about the need to expand the Dark Triad to include sadism and the role of personality in understanding individual differences, morality, and moral decision-making.
Kalahasthi, R., Bhuptani, P. H., & Kapoor, H. (2017). An analysis of thoughts, behaviours, and emotions in daily decision-making. Psychological Studies, 62(4), 409-420. doi:10.1007/s12646-017-0430-x
Cognitive theory and naturalistic decision-making models were utilized to examine the relationship between thoughts, behaviours, and emotions in daily decision-making. An experimental survey using vignettes examined the effects of investment of cognitive and behavioural effort in hypothetical vignettes on emotional responses to uncertain negative outcomes. For each vignette, this negative outcome was either surprising or distressing. Further, the type of uncertainty was an alteration, inclusion, or cancellation pertaining to the original vignette, yielding six conditions in the within-groups design. Participants (N = 335, 220 females) responded to each vignette by choosing a behavioural effort option (low or high), following which they elaborated the reason for their choice (high or low cognitive effort). They also responded to the predetermined negative outcome on an affective scale (emotional response). Results showed that (a) emotional responses to vignettes varied, based on the type of uncertainty in the scenario; (b) surprising outcomes elicited higher emotional distress; (c) behavioural effort positively predicted emotional distress when the type of uncertainty was alteration or inclusion; and (d) strategies involving high cognitive effort predicted investment of high behavioural effort in the vignette. Implications of examining behavioural, cognitive, and emotional processes leading to daily decisions are discussed in the context of coping with uncertainty.
This paper was also presented as a poster at the 126th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in San Francisco, CA in August, 2018.
Kalahasthi, R., Bhuptani, P. H., & Kapoor, H. (2018, August). An analysis of thoughts, behaviours, and emotions in daily decision-making. Poster session presented at the 126th Annual Convention of American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA
Kapoor, H. & Tagat, A. (2017). How happy is a creative country? A country-level analysis of creativity and subjective well-being. In F. Reisman (Ed.), Creativity, innovation, and well-being (pp. 165-188). London, UK: KIE Conference Publications. Retrieved from ResearchGate.
While psychological literature is familiar with the study of individual creativity, macro-level creative industries and economies have been studied only recently. Indices like the Global Creativity Index (GCI) and the Global Innovation Index (GII) compile information of over 130 economies to provide a snapshot of their creative and innovative behaviour. Given the positive association between creative occupations and subjective well-being (SWB), a study at the national level between these variables can provide valuable insights. Creative inputs, such as a tolerant environment, creative out-puts like number of patents filed nationally, and the monetization of creative activities, like the monetary value of creative good exports were used as predictors for SWB. Quantitative regression analyses of secondary data from various agencies, including the World Bank, International Labor Organization, and Gallup Poll, indicated that SWB was significantly explained by specific creativity parameters at the national level. In line with the assumptions that creativity and innovation will be the drivers of future economies and ideas will create economic value, relationships between creativity and SWB can provide meaning and motivation to countries looking to capitalize human resources.
Diwakar, S. (2017). Let’s not call things ‘crazy’: Language and portrayal of mental illness. Economic & Political Weekly, 52(30). Retrieved from http://www.epw.in/journal/2017/30/web-exclusives/lets-not-call-things-%E2%80%98crazy%E2%80%99-language-and-portrayal-mental-illness
Neurodiversity holds that atypical neural configurations of certain mental conditions are too diverse to be collectively "othered" as abnormal. The antecedents of neurodiversity are addressed in this article by understanding media representations of neuroatypicality and how words construct our perceptions regarding the mentally ill. This evolution, partly due to a climate of political correctness, is apparent when comparing the language of the Lunacy Act (1858) with the Mental Health Care Act (2017).
Fernandes, S., Kapoor, H., & Karandikar, S. (2017). Do we gossip for moral reasons? The intersection of moral foundations and gossip. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 39(4), 218—230. doi:10.1080/01973533.2017.1336713
Gossip is comprised of evaluative talk about absent others. Although such evaluations may be moral or non-moral, moral judgments often precede the transmission of gossip. This work explored the salience of moral and non-moral motivations to transmit gossip-like information. Two studies explored the relationships between the general tendency to gossip, transmission of, and interest in gossip, five moral foundations (Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, Purity/sanctity), their sacredness in relational contexts, and moral and non-moral motives to gossip. Results from Studies 1 (negative gossip - infidelity) and 2 (positive gossip - fidelity) indicated that moral motives to gossip were more important than non-moral motives. The contribution of morality in perpetuating gossip was discussed.
Das-Friebel, A., Wadhwa, N., Sanil, M., Kapoor, H., & V. S. (2017). Investigating altruism and selfishness through the hypothetical use of superpowers. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1—28. doi:10.17.7/002216781769049
Drawing from literature associating superheroes with altruism, this study examined whether ordinary individuals engaged in altruistic or selfish behavior when they were hypothetically given superpowers. Participants were presented with six superpowers—three positive (healing, invulnerability, and flight) and three negative (fear inducement, psychic persuasion, and poison generation). They indicated their desirability for each power, what they would use it for (social benefit, personal gain, social harm), and listed examples of such uses. Quantitative analyses (n = 285) revealed that 94% of participants wished to possess a superpower, and majority indicated using powers for benefitting themselves than for altruistic purposes. Furthermore, while men wanted positive and negative powers more, women were more likely than men to use such powers for personal and social gain. Qualitative analyses of the uses of the powers (n = 524) resulted in 16 themes of altruistic and selfish behavior. Results were analyzed within Pearce and Amato’s model of helping behavior, which was used to classify altruistic behavior, and adapted to classify selfish behavior. In contrast to how superheroes behave, both sets of analyses revealed that participants would hypothetically use superpowers for selfish rather than altruistic purposes. Limitations and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Sanil, M. (2016). From Gods to superheroes: An analysis of Indian comics through a mythological lens. Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, 1-11. doi:10.1080/10304312.2016.1257698
Heroes form a part of most cultures, serving various social and psychological functions. Scholars studying the concept of heroes have emphasized that humans crave heroes. While Western comics have been widely studied and critiqued, Indian comics have not received much scholarly attention. In order to contribute theoretically to hero and superhero literature, the conceptions of the popular cultural trope of superheroes in Western and Indian comics are examined in three ways. First, this article gives an account of the conceptualization of Indian superheroes, through a mythological-religious lens, and attempts to explain why Indian comics and its superheroes failed to achieve the popularity enjoyed by Western counterparts. Second, as characters from Hindu mythology largely make up the superheroes in Indian comics, the applicability of Campbell’s models of mythology and heroes, and Jungian archetypes to Hindu mythology is demonstrated. Third, the article also analyses the functional similarities and differences served by superhero comics in the West and Hindu mythology in India; conclusions about their cultural relevance are drawn.
Das-Friebel, A. & Kapoor, H. (2016). Internet addiction: A multi-faceted disorder. Journal of Addictive Behaviours, Therapy & Rehabilitation, 5(1), 1-4. doi:10.4172/2324-9005.1000152
The current paper is a critical commentary on the existing conceptualization of Internet Addiction. Specifically, the paper highlights fallacies in perceiving Internet Addiction as a ‘traditional’ addiction disorder, as presented in the DSM-5. Instead, it is proposed that, akin to the nature of the Internet, this disorder is also multi-faceted and that individuals are not addicted to the Internet per se, but rather to what the Internet may offer. Further, the paper discusses the need to distinguish between clinical addiction and subclinical Internet usage. In particular, it is argued that excessive Internet use can enhance and facilitate productivity, and that a distinction must be made between essential and non-essential uses of the Internet, as well as the proportion of time spent on these two types of activities. Last, the paper questions the validity of existing measures of Internet Addiction. It is suggested that it may be beneficial for the understanding and conceptualization of Internet Addiction to move away from existing addiction and impulsecontrol models, and instead be framed independently.
Kapoor, H., Tagat, A., & Cropley, D. H. (2016). Fifty shades of creativity: Case studies of malevolent creativity in art, science, and technology. In F. Reisman (Ed.), Creativity in the arts, science, and technology (pp. 25-44). London, UK: KIE Conference Publications. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4702.4244
The darker shades of creativity have recently attracted great interest because negative and malevolent creativity are found in multiple domains. It is easier to conceive of creative acts that meet negative goals as uncreative, primarily because of their immoral and unethical nature. However, a complete understanding of the creativity construct may be obtained by assessing it within a valenced framework, wherein each component of creativity is positive or negative. In this qualitative account of malevolent creativity, we review manifestations of such creativities in the contexts of art, science, and technology. That is, original and subjectively useful actions taken by actors in each of these domains, which meet negative goals, with the deliberate intent to harm another individual or society at large. First, a brief review of literature in the areas of dark, negative, and malevolent creativity is presented. Second, qualitative accounts of malevolent creativity in art (forgery), science (academic dishonesty), and technology (cybercrime) are analyzed through D. H. Cropley‘s (2010) framework integrating valence and Rhodes‘ (1961) four Ps model of creativity. Each domain is first examined independently; subsequently, attempts are made to identify commonalities underlying malevolent creative behaviours across domains. Suggestions for future research in this emerging subfield of creativity are provided.
Wadhwa, N. (2015). Gender discrimination is not a joke. WSRC Communiqué, 1, 29-30. M. S. University of Baroda.
Kapoor, H., Bhuptani, P. H. & Agneswaran, A. (2015). The Bechdel in India: Gendered depictions in contemporary Hindi cinema. Journal of Gender Studies, 26(2), 212-226. doi: 10.1080/09589236.2015.1102128
The Bechdel test is a popular measure used to examine the adequacy of representation of women in movies, and other media. Although often applied to Hollywood movies, the test has rarely, if ever, been used to assess Hindi cinema. This paper adopts, adapts, and extends the original Bechdel test to scrutinise stereotypical, non-stereotypical, and typical dialogic content of same-sex conversations in three genres of Hindi cinema – top-grossing blockbuster films, women-centric movies, and parallel cinema. Using a qualitative approach to code dialogues, and quantifying subsequent frequencies, the current work highlights the underrepresentation and misrepresentation of female characters in contemporary Hindi cinema. The time taken for men to speak to men and women to speak to women was also quantified. While women-centric and parallel films depict a more balanced portrayal of male and female characters, top-grossing films are heavily lopsided, with some being devoid of a second female lead, and hence of female-to-female dialogues. Male characters spoke of more varied areas, both stereotypical and non-stereotypical, than women particularly in top-grossing content. The implications of such depictions in cinema, and their subsequent effect on perceptions of men and women in society, is discussed.
This study associates the subclinical dark triad (DT) of personality—narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, and their composite—with negative creativity. An instrument developed by the author assessed the likelihood of engaging in creativity, where negative creativity was defined as an act that is original and useful to the individual. The strength of association between creativity, positivity, and negativity was assessed via an Implicit Association Test. The DT scales, Creativity measure, and the IAT were administered to 51 Indian adults (M age = 22.3 years, 27 women). Multiple regression analyses revealed positive associations between narcissism and positive creativity, and between psychopathy and negative creativity. Further, the composite DT score predicted engagement in negative creativity. The associative strength between negativity and creativity on the IAT was not significant, though corollaries were drawn. Limitations and contributions of this study are outlined, and suggestions for future research are summarized
Agneswaran, A. & Javeri, A. (2015). The relationship between Epistemic Curiosity and Social Desirability among Indian students. Journal of the Indian Association of Applied Psychology, 41(3), 187-193. Retrieved from http://jiaap.org/Sample.aspx?Sub=JIAAP%20Special%20Issue%202015
Epistemic curiosity, tendency to gossip, and social desirability are social constructs relevant to interpersonal relationships and acquisition of information. Gender and cultural factors may moderate these variables in an important manner. 100 Indian college students (Mage = 21.05, SDage = 4.41, range: 16–45) participated in this study, which was an exploratory research to understand the relationship between curiosity, gossip, and social desirability constructs moderated by gender in an Indian sample. It was hypothesized that the reporting of epistemic curiosity and tendencies to gossip were mediated by social desirability. MANOVAs and correlational analyses revealed that epistemic curiosity and social desirability were negatively correlated for male participants, suggesting the existence of high curiosity with a low need to portray a favourable self-image. Male participants scored higher on the three constructs, implying gender differences in the Indian sample. Considerations for future research are discussed.
Kapoor, H. (2014). Swears in context: The difference between casual and abusive swearing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 45(2), 259-274. doi:10.1007/s10936-014-9345-z
Although swearing is taboo language, it frequently appears in daily conversations. To explain this paradox, two studies examined contextualized swearing in Indian and non- Indian participants. In Study 1, participants assessed the appropriateness of mild, moderate, and severe swears in casual and abusive contexts; in Study 2, participants completed contextual dialogues with mild, moderate, or severe swearwords. Results indicated that mild and moderate swears were more appropriate in casual settings than in abusive scenarios; severe swears were the most inappropriate, regardless of context. Mild and moderate swears were likely to be used to complete casual and abusive dialogues respectively, even though it was expected that severe swears would be compatible with abusive settings. Moreover, gender and nationality differences suggested that assessing appropriateness of swearing behaviour and likelihood of swearword usage provided independent and contrasting findings. Cultural variations in swearing behaviour, particularly contextualized swearing, and suggestions for further research are outlined.
Balani, K. H. (2013). One step forward and two steps back. WSRC Communiqué, 2, 18-19. M. S. University of Baroda.
Gala, P. (2013). Gender disguise in the Indian entertainment industry: Cross-dressing. WSRC Communiqué, 2, 23-24. M. S. University of Baroda.
Puthillam, A. (2018, September 19). This is Your Brain on Democracy. Pragati. Retrieved from https://www.thinkpragati.com/think/5600/this-is-your-brain-on-democracy/
Kapoor, H. (2018, September 10). Mental Health Insurance Cover in India is Welcome, but Unplanned Move. The Wire. Retrieved from https://thewire.in/health/mental-health-insurance-irdai-dsm5-clinical-psychology
Karandikar, S. (2018, August 28). Where are the female mentors? Pragati. Retrieved from https://www.thinkpragati.com/think/5432/where-are-the-female-mentors/
Puthillam, A. (2018, August 8). Why we are drawn to imaginary worlds. The Swaddle. Retrieved from https://theswaddle.com/why-were-drawn-to-imaginary-worlds/
Puthillam, A. (2018, August 7). Are You Left or Right, Stupid? Pragati. Retrieved from https://www.thinkpragati.com/think/5257/are-you-left-or-right-stupid/
Puthillam, A., & Kanisetti, A (2018, July 11). WhatsApp mobs: It’s time to accept Indians may be predisposed towards xenophobia. The Print. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2N5ZH3H
Karandikar, S. (2018, June 26). Crime and punishment. Pragati. Retrieved from https://www.thinkpragati.com/opinion/4924/crime-and-punishment/
Puthillam, A. (2018, June 11). Watch out for those biases. Pragati. Retrieved from https://www.thinkpragati.com/opinion/4801/watch-out-for-those-biases/
Kapoor, H. (2018, March 25). Women on banknotes are associated with greater gender equality. Mint on Sunday. Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/shqa8Z3CxyjxfcGtTlHUcL/Women-on-banknotes-are-associated-with-greater-gender-equali.html
Desai, M. (2018, March 4). The Star Wars monomyth. Mint on Sunday. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/CmEtr73Fc7IJcQNKKOPtyL/The-Star-Wars-monomyth.html
Parekh, A. (2018, February 14). Want to Boost the Economy and People’s Happiness? Invest in Creativity. The Swaddle. Retrieved from https://theswaddle.com/union-budget-2018-want-to-boost-the-economy-and-peoples-happiness-invest-in-creativity/
Parekh, A. (2018, February 2). The Kardashian Index and the Metamorphosis of the ‘Scientific Community’. The Wire. Retrieved from https://thewire.in/220373/kardashian-index-metamorphosis-scientific-community/
Puthillam, A. (2017, November 25). Impostor Phenomenon: where self-doubt rules and success doesn’t heal. Mint on Sunday. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/5k7ZxYoHPBz5XtPRbaKWbM/Impostor-Phenomenon-where-selfdoubt-rules-and-success-does.html
Parekh, A. (2017, November 17). How Google is revolutionising research. The Wire. Retrieved from https://thewire.in/197407/google-revolutionising-research/
Parekh, A., Puthillam, A. (2017, October 24). Analysis: How implicit biases hamper women’s participation in science. The Wire. Retrieved from https://thewire.in/189567/implicit-bias-gender-stereotypes-women-stem-association-test-lack-of-fit/
Puthillam, A. (2017, October 15). Why we gossip: The morality of an immoral (but irresistible) pastime. The Swaddle. Retrieved from https://theswaddle.com/why-we-gossip/
Puthillam, A. (2017, September 23). The theory of the stupid class. Mint on Sunday. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/nLw5D4hm1ZvlL5LkNks6VI/The-theory-of-the-stupid-class.html
Karandikar, S. (2017, June 18). The case of India's missing forensic psychologists. Mint on Sunday. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/tI8ge5WBhG0HXxCW9mKzNM/The-case-of-Indias-missing-forensic-psychologists.html
Parekh, A. (2017, May 29). Big Data: a big boon for mental healthcare. Mint. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/YU51UCig8I9ldZ6dgScjlL/Big-Data-a-big-boon-for-mental-healthcare.html
Parekh, A. (2017, May 24). Indian media should stay away from the Echo Chamber effect. Swarajya. Retrieved from https://swarajyamag.com/ideas/indian-media-should-stay-away-from-the-echo-chamber-effect
Kapoor, H. (2017, April 24). A market for mental health insurance? Mint. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/wtvnTJn38ZXv7deKCV2B0N/A-market-for-mental-health-insurance.html
Diwakar, S. (2017, April 16). Dangal, Pink, Piku to Queen: How does Hindi cinema fare on the Bechdel Test? Firstpost. Retrieved from http://www.firstpost.com/entertainment/dangal-pink-piku-to-queen-how-does-hindi-cinema-fare-on-the-bechdel-test-3385454.html
Diwakar, S. (2017, February 19). Alternative facts: Surviving a time when accurate information is scarce but unverified reports thrive. Firstpost. Retrieved from http://www.firstpost.com/living/alternative-facts-surviving-a-time-when-accurate-information-is-scarce-but-unverified-reports-thrive-3289812.html
Karandikar, S. (2017, January 11). Juvenile delinquency: Root of the problem needs to be addressed instead of the punishment. Firstpost. Retrieved from http://www.firstpost.com/india/juvenile-delinquency-root-of-the-problem-needs-to-be-addressed-instead-of-the-punishment-3199076.html
Sanil, M. & Deshpande, A. (2016, December 7). Mythology And Comics: How the superhero traditions of India and the West compare. Swarajya. Retrieved from http://swarajyamag.com/culture/mythology-and-comics-how-the-superhero-traditions-of-india-and-the-west-compare
Kapoor, H. (2016, December 3). Dear Zindagi from a therapist's perspective: Gauri Shinde's film does much for mental health. Firstpost. Retrieved from http://www.firstpost.com/living/dear-zindagi-from-a-therapists-perspective-gauri-shindes-film-does-much-for-mental-health-3136854.html
Kapoor, H. (2015, June 9). Mental health screening: Flawed approach can boomerang. Swarajya. Retrieved from http://swarajyamag.com/culture/mental-health-screening-flawed-approach-can-boomerang/